What happened to Friday? “The remaining day of the week, it have become the first day of the weekend,” says Jean-Yves Boulin, a sociologist in search of new life, professional time on the CNRS. The signs of this inversion of the calendar abound. Stations are invaded on Friday morning, or even on Thursday night. “For two years, my Thursday sales figures have improved via 15%,” says Brigitte Poucard, manager of the Relay station Montparnasse. At airports, the height of affluence begins at 15 hours, towards 17 hours last yr. “zero.5% of passengers Friday fly away now a day in advance,” it’s far predicted to Air France. The excursion operators rub their hands in the front of the fulfillment of their “widened weekends”: 15% increase in 2000 at Nouvelles Frontières, 30% for Fram … Since the spring, Smart Bison has been trying to predict traffic jams that no longer arise … “Departures are spreading, with a clear growth between eight and sixteen hours “, admits Pierre Ville, of the center of street coordination of Creteil. And unexpected caps are shaped on Thursday night time.
The impact thirty-five hours? Not most effective. For a 12 months and a half, Friday is in reality an afternoon of reduced operating time favored it allows to manage to pay for a long weekend without lacking the conferences of Monday. But its achievement is going a lot similarly: “At the 5th week of holidays, in 1982, place to begin of splitting holidays,” says Jean-Louis Marlet, the National Center for Road Information (Cnir). Taken at Christmas or in February, this greater week gave French humans the flavor of ordinary breaks in place of the unmarried regenerating month. The Robien Act, the boom of component-time work and the four-day school week did the rest. “For five years, long weekends are not restricted in May,” says Jacques Maillot, CEO of Nouvelles Frontières.
Friday has a holiday search for individuals who work. “Thank God, it’s Friday”, says the Anglo-Saxons. “In the pinnacle, we are already on weekends”, appreciates Michel Tournier the author of Vendredi or The Limbo of the Pacific has also marked his preference for the wild Friday on the civil and cultivated Robinson. Is it due to the fact, as the sociologist Gérard Mermet, writer of Francoscopie, indicates, “we are all Robinson, and our Friday which permits us to escape our social straitjacket is the eponymous day”? Because Friday, the day of Venus, goddess of splendor, embodies “female” values: continuity, balance, consensus ? Or due to the fact the predicted pride of rest mingles with the need to decompress?
Even worked, Friday is halfway between the week and the weekend, between “broth of subculture” and “Thalassa”. That day, the fashion of informal Friday, or Friday wear, which has been spreading in France for two years, desires us to get dressed in the workplace like in the course of the week-quit. . Companies avoid scheduling meetings, executives do no longer make appointments. “It’s a day of stability in place of motion,” said Denis Cellier, the former overall performance consultant Olivier de Kersauzon coaches businessmen. An perfect day for “activity” schooling seminars: they devise a diversion from ordinary life or for symposiums foreigners who move on a weekend of discovery. “We in no way end after 4 pm,” adds Andreu Solé, professor at HEC Management and ISA. HEC college students’ instructions begin at 9 am (8 am on different days). Knowing that the absenteeism oscillates between 10 and 15% because of the pupil evenings of Thursday …
Because we rejoice it, this freeing day! The day before, Spanish employees are at the run, at the same time as, the same day, in Britain, executives and personnel put their facts an hour in advance to drain collectively a few pints at the pub earlier than returning to their candy domestic. More discreet, French personnel make Friday a day of a laugh and conviviality. We prepare the beginning or birthday jars, the lunch damage lengthens for a “true meals” between colleagues … “Every week, someone from the provider brings a cake,” says Carole, a younger salesman at JP Morgan. Magic of Saint Friday! A magic wand and all is nicely, all of us receives alongside properly. Yet, 4 days ago, it become stylish to appearance gray: “It’s like a Monday …”
Friday has now not usually been endowed with such virtues. In the Middle Ages, on the opposite, the humans attributed to him evil powers, because many deadly occasions had taken area on a Friday (even, a Friday 13): the temptation of Adam by using Eve, the bloodbath of Innocents, the loss of life of the Christ or the stoning of Saint Stephen … “It became the worst day of the week, while not anything ought to succeed,” explains Eloise Mozzani in The Book of Superstitions (1). Consequently, one did now not undertake some thing to expose, stitch, journey or negotiate, to get married, to alternate one’s shirt, or even to sing. Indeed, “whoever laughs on a Friday, Sunday, will cry,” says the announcing (2). Friday changed into favorable only to bewitchments of love, Venus obliges …
These superstitions have lost their influence at the identical time as Catholicism. And, in the cutting-edge religion that venerates the Stock Exchange, the many “Black Fridays” (3) have no longer revived the curse. “Even if he keeps a vague reputation of bad good fortune, related to the variety 13, the day of Friday will become fantastic”, notes Brigitte Roth, to the French of the games. On Friday October thirteen, 2000, 7.Eight million Lotto Bulletins had been proven, in comparison to 1.Four million the preceding Friday.
Friday did now not continually benefit from the privileged repute of weekend watch. If, through definition, the week (from the Latin septimana) has continually been seven days, we labored on Sundays until the beginning of the century (4), and on Saturdays until the 60s. “Today, it’s far at Friday’s flip to be nibbled at each ends, “stated André Rauch, professor of history and sociology of amusement at Marc-Bloch University in Strasbourg. The morning suffers from the excesses of the day before and a sure rest; in the afternoon, early departures within the weekend to keep away from office returns.
Not to mention, because thirty-five hours, agencies that close their doorways at 4 pm, or even, as the marketing corporation Alice or SNCF management Ile-de-France, the complete afternoon. “Friday is the most requested excursion,” says Jean-Yves Madec, HRM of Mamie Nova, a organization that has been running for thirty-two hours for four years. If all personnel can not be absent that day, let alone in tourism and distribution, where the hobby is maximum, Friday is the new symbolic discipline of the inexorable reduction of running time, divided via seeing that the beginning of the century (5).
“Friday is a transition day in a society in transition,” says Gérard Mermet greater commonly. It translates in practice all of the rising currents of our civilization. The disintegrate of collective time, to begin with. “In the old days, the entire society become united in a common time punctuated by way of the Angelus and the manufacturing unit bell,” remembers Bruno Marzloff, time control professional at Groupe Chronos. We worked from eight to 18 hours, from Monday to Friday. “Ten years ago, people left and lower back from weekends at the equal hours and took their vacations among July 15 and August 15,” recalls Jean-Louis Marlet, CNIR.
Today, some paintings at night time, others paintings on Sundays. “And personnel enjoy the fifteen days obtained thanks to the thirty-five hours no longer to be in the same region on the identical time as each person,” said Jean Viard, director of research in political technology on the Center for the Study of Life French politics (Cevipof). Result: three out of 10 French leave outside the months of July and August who still dares to talk of “first-rate vacations”? , the UCPA completes its particular seven-day training application with tailored sports trips, and the town of Poitiers units up a “time corporation” so that organizations, administrations and vendors can adapt to the offbeat schedules of its population .
Day of go away selected and not suffered, safe haven day of mothers who need to take care of them in preference to their youngsters as they could on Wednesday, day while the docile framework departs from the uniform to pick out his outfit, day eventually singles he gave his name to a Luxembourgish exit internet site, Friday Night.Lu, to an American chain of restaurants, TGI Friday’s, to a fortnightly Swiss, On Friday, all focused in this audience, Friday is the realization of this new time mastered and customized.
“This day symbolizes the interpenetration of the expert and private spheres, any other heavy trend of our society”, decrypts Bruno Marzloff. We use his personal mobile smartphone to call a client, his organisation car to go on excursion, a 3rd of the running human beings earn a living from home at some point of the week or week-give up (6), and on Friday, a decompression chamber, we add greater inside the domestic-workplace mix.
On this point too, the organization of informal Friday isn’t always trivial. “The agency acknowledges that personnel have a private existence and that it has a power on their work”, analyzes Gérard Mermet. Bastion of classicism, investment bank Merrill Lynch admits to have granted this choose “in reaction to the departure of executives to begin-up, wherein they experience that they can be greater themselves.”
“Friday is the vicinity of the shift of our society from labor to leisure,” says in the meantime the sinologist truth seeker François Jullien. If paintings represents handiest 11% of the waking hours of a life, if the free time has quintupled considering the start of the century and if the amusement is the first item of expenditure of the families 1 / 4 of the price range, in front of the housing, the work is now not the guarantor of social reputation. The adage will become: “Tell me what you do in your spare time and I will inform you who you are.” And even: “Tell me what you do to your Friday …” François Jullien emphasizes: “The Friday, we leave in advance within the weekend because we want to devour more enjoyment, we get in advance. “At least within the West:” In Asia, time whilst one needed to paintings to deserve the rest, specific form of rest. The modern-day individual claims his essential right to leisure. “The immediately amusement replaces the sacrifice and the attempt, the free time becomes the sacred time, the Judeo-Christian civilization collapses”, decrypts Gérard Mermet. Friday, symbol of the paganization of society? Time while one needed to work to deserve the relaxation, particular form of relaxation. The contemporary man or woman claims his essential proper to amusement. “The instantaneous enjoyment replaces the sacrifice and the effort, the free time becomes the sacred time, the Judeo-Christian civilization collapses”, decrypts Gérard Mermet. Friday, image of the paganization of society?
This day, sacred within the unique religions, sees the rites that marked it fade away. The practice of fasting and abstinence among Catholics, for example, is difficult to face up to on the quit of the week. And even on Lenten Fridays, the lunchtime sandwich is greater regularly full of meat than with fish.
In Jewish households, preparation with the aid of women for the Sabbath (the sacred rest, which begins on Friday night time) does no longer healthy properly with work schedules: “You have to smooth up earlier than darkish, prepare food for 2. Days, smooth linen, candles for prayer, “says Esther Nizard, assistant in a publishing institution. Before running at four/five, she began her preparations on Thursday night time and got up at 6 am the following day. Today, she has her Friday unfastened. “But while you move on an prolonged weekend, you bypass the ritual of cleanliness.We are glad with the prayer,” stated the one who wishes “respectful of customs however now not working towards”.
Only the Muslim Friday community prayer day (like Christian Sunday) resists, at the least in look. Some 6,000 devoted (twenty instances greater than different days) come to the Great Mosque of Paris in the course of their lunch destroy. “The adjacent courtyards and again alleys are full.In the Sixties, barely the primary three rows of the hall of honor have been crammed,” says rector Dalil Boubakeur. But some pupils see it as a revival of traditional religious sentiment instead of an affirmation of identity. “In France, it is less complicated to proclaim himself a Muslim than Algerian or Tunisian, says Farhad Khosrokhavar, director of research at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Islam lets in young people to to confirm a mild distinction with out excluding oneself from society. “A society with a Christian heritage, surely, however now uniformly secular, from Monday to Sunday.
Once is not commonplace, Friday and Sunday, the two sworn enemies, therefore know the equal destiny. On Friday, in fact, “it’s the antidimanche,” confesses Michel Tournier. Everything opposes them. The first is illuminated via the weekend beforehand, the alternative, ruined by way of Monday. One is the day out with friends, the opposite, the meal and the family stroll. Friday is set to end up unemployed, whilst pressure is powerful to repair paintings Sunday! “Beautiful Friday, unpleasant Sunday” (or vice versa), says aussile saying.
Should we see the primary signal of every week where every day might seem like each different? After all, if you can pick out to take your Wednesday and transform on the same time on Tuesday to Friday, it becomes difficult to differentiate the day of Venus from that of Mars or the Sun!
“A pivotal day, Friday will lose its originality when the evolutions of the organisation might be finished,” confirms Gérard Mermet, which sets the deadline to approximately five years. “Everyone will choose the fame he wants to assign to this or that day enjoyment or work in keeping with his organic rhythm and now not an arbitrary calendar,” enthuses the train Denis Cellier.
The days will no longer be uniform. But the department of the weekly cycle among working and leisure time have to update the conventional division of time between weekdays and weekends.
The revolution is on. “Whatever the day of the week, buccaneers no longer hide to wander around metropolis for the duration of workplace hours,” says consultant Bruno Marzloff. Who can recognize, certainly, if those idlers are purported to work or if they earnings pretty legally from their RTT?
In the US (so the next day in France), at JP Morgan or Goldman Sachs, the informal Friday has come to be informal each day (informal fashion each day) …
“This is a way of life, an attitude,” says Sandra Khatcheriguian at Escada, who needs her brand new guys’s fragrance, Casual Friday, to be worn each day of the week. The tour operator Fram is making plans to broaden its week-lengthy getaways, Nouvelles Frontieres has been providing this year a mini-dive in Egypt with departure on Wednesday. And, at the peak of modernity, at Intel, employees pick their vacations à la carte (with a quota). From there to that each day of the week are Fridays …
- Eloise Mozzani, The Book of Superstitions, coll. “Bouquins”, Robert Laffont.
- Petit-Jean, in The Racine Pleaders.
- September 24, 1869 in the United States, October 24, 1929 in New York (a renamed Thursday), May 11, 1966 in London.
- Robert Beck, History of Sunday from 1700 to these days, Editions de l’Atelier.
- Francoscopy 2001, Larousse.
- Study of the Chronos Group, June 1999.
Where does the seven-day week come from?
By gazing the Moon, astrologers of antiquity divided the time into lunations (months), then lunations in four quarters, septimana (intervals of 7 days, in Latin). Our cutting-edge calendar is inspired by that of the Babylonians, Egyptians and Hebrews, who made
of the week the length of the introduction of the arena.
Where does the word Friday come from?
Friday (Veneris dies) means Venus day. The astrologers of the Antiquity assigned to each day a planet, ordering those consistent with a developing distance from Earth, from Sunday (day of the solar) to Saturday (day of Saturn). They area the Earth among the Moon and the Sun, which are, for them, planets.
All names on Friday
Freitag, day of Freya, German-Scandinavian goddess of Love, in German.
Friday in English, for the same motive.
Yom hachichi, Sabbath eve, for the Jews.
Sexta feira, 6th day (compared to Sunday), in Portuguese.
Piatnitsa, five, in Russian.
Jemhaa, the king of days, amongst Muslims, in memory of the introduction of Adam.
Fifth or sixth day?
Friday is the 5th day of the week since the International Standardization Organization made Monday the first day. The week starts on Sunday among Jews and Christians. But for
to distinguish themselves, those moved the day of rest and the Lord from Saturday to Sunday.
Where does Friday’s horrific reputation come from?
Christians locate the fatal occasions of the Bible that day. But the Church sanctifies Good Friday
The Nordics, they inform the legend of the goddess Frigga, exile witch who, every Friday, collected on a mountain thirteen witches and the satan to determine the packages of the week to return.
Friday the thirteenth, cursed or blessed?
For four hundred years, there had been 688 on Friday thirteen, 687 Sunday thirteen and 684 on Thursday thirteen. Christians see on Friday the 13th of the month of Nisan (between March and April, inside the Jewish calendar) the day of the loss of life of Christ . Friday can also be the day of original sin, if Eve offered her apple to Adam the Friday after Creation!
The superstitious of Friday
Winston Churchill, Lord Byron, Catherine de Medici and Napoleon did not anything on a Friday. But Friday delivered good success to Francis I, Henry IV, Sixtus V (born, appointed cardinal, elected pope and enthroned on a Friday), Charles Dickens and these days Michel Tournier (born on Friday, and whose first e-book, Friday or The Limbo of the Pacific, become a top notch success).
To recognize extra
– Calendar, master of time? Jacqueline de Bourgoing, ed. Gallimard.
– The Book of Superstitions, Eloise Mozzani, ed. Robert Laffont.
– History of Sunday from 1700 to the modern-day, Robert Beck, Editions de l’Atelier.
– Francoscopie 2001, Gérard Mermet, ed.Larousse.
– The Values of the French, Pierre Bréchon, ed. Armand Colin.
– 1 employee out of 2 of the corporations with more than 20 personnel in France has long past up to thirty-five hours. Which frees an afternoon each two weeks on common.
– 12 million French (one in five) purchase a newspaper on Friday. This is the third excellent day for newspaper income.
– 70. It is the wide variety of high-velocity trains that omit each Friday night time at the SNCF to deal with the influx of the weekend.
– 15% of the 1999 Parisian weekly car visitors become on Friday. It’s the busiest day of the week.
– 15% This is the charge of absenteeism at HEC publications on Friday morning. Optional afternoon training also entice 15% fewer students.
– 2 instances more gamers attempt their success in Lotto the “lucky weeks” that encompass a Friday thirteen … And a supercap.
– + 50%. This is the fee of boom in hospitalizations for accidents and poisoning in London hospitals on Fridays.
250 million dollars. This is the monetary fee, for america, of every Friday 13. Many Americans stop all interest that day.
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